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Editorial 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 Epilog Anhang


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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

Erfahrungen i.d.Gefangenschaft Bemerkungen z.russ.Mentalität Träume i.d.Gefangenschaft

Personen-Index Namen,Anschriften Personal I.R.477 1940–44 Übersichtskarte (Orte,Wege) Orts-Index Vormarsch-Weg Codenamen der Operationen im Sommer 1942 Mil.Rangordnung 257.Inf.Div. MG-Komp.eines Inf.Batl. Kgf.-Lagerorganisation Kriegstagebücher Allgemeines Zu einzelnen Zeitabschnitten Linkliste Rotkreuzkarte Originalmanuskript Briefe von Kompanie-Angehörigen

von Winfried Schrödter

Allgemeines — General

██so gekennzeichnete Einträge sind in den jeweils angegebenen Tagebuchartikeln nachzuarbeiten██

██Mit Anhang/Abkürzungen zusammenfassen, Einleitung einfach mit einbauen██

The majority of the foreign language texts is based on automatic translation, in parts reworked by the editor.

Older parts have been translated using Google translate, newer ones with DeepL., Wikipedia and sprachgefühl (instinctive feel for the language) are used during reworking.

From 22 Nov 2020 onward the English dialect used is expressedly British English.

Phil Price and Richard Hargreaves kindly translated several pages pertaining to the early stages of "Barbarossa" in June and July 1941, Jason Mark gave lots of further hints.

Ortsnamen — Place names

Place names are mostly left in their German spelling because this is how they can be found on contemporary military maps. As the translation software tried to translate or transliterate some place names, this principle is not always followed. This may be reworked at some later time.

Terms and Expressions (Military and Non-Military)

Below you find a list of terms together with my source-based or sometimes tentative translations and a description. Bold face denotes German terms left untranslated in most instances because they are difficult to translate. The editor believes that they are well-known to military historians, anyway. May they give the text a special atmosphere. Many list items (most marked +) are only notes to the editor's self to ease translation work and insure standardised translation, they may be deleted later.




Abstellung secondment + Hauptbedeutung Abordnung
abschießen (Flugzeug, Panzer) shoot down, knock out/destroy[1]
Adjutant[2] adjutant, aide (-de-camp) (ADC?) personnel officer in a staff, then IIa, today S-1, G-1, A-1 or J-1; the term aide (-de-camp) rather pertains to Ordonnanzoffizier (O.O., O.O.1...) ██bis Frankreich prüfen██; besides the IIa and O.O., there seems to have been a third type of orderly officers serving higher commanders as a butler ██3. Begriff suchen, Gordon fragen?██;
Alte, der ~ old man, greybeard familiar nickname for the commander
Arbeitsanzug (Drillich) fatigue dress/uniform +
Ari arty ██alle Seiten ändenn██


B-Stelle, VB (forward/artillery) observation post + cf. Abbr.
Batailloner (Batl.-Kommandeur) + battalioner (acc. to
Befehlsübernahme + Transfer of authority
Berliner Jelly Donut +
bodenständig immovable
Bunker dugout, bunker (mostly used)


das konnten sie nicht gut übersehen they could not very well overlook it +
dieser X that fellow X +
Do-Werfer, Nebelwerfer rocket launcher The Nebelwerfer was colloquially named Do-Werfer, acc. to LdW after Walter Dornberger who was responsible for the army's rocket development from 1932
doch after all +
Drillich (Arbeitsanzug) fatigue dress/uniform +


E-Werk power station, electricity plant +
ein für alle Mal for good +
ein gewisser X one X +
einweisen (örtlich/Lage) marshal (into positions)/brief (into situation)
erster Stock, 1. OG first floor ambiguous, simply mention ground floor, too
Etappe rear area
Etappenhengst base wallah, rear-echelon Joe


Fertigmachen! Listen Up! Heads Up! Look Sharp! Stand To! On Your Feet! Prepare (to move out)!
informal[3] (Fertigwerden!): Get ready!
Feuerüberfall surprise fire, fire concentration +
filzen frisking (and nicking) + (body and luggage) search for forbidden items; wrong: filching or felting
Flak anti-aircraft gun/cannon + (cf. Abbr.) [4]
Fliegermarschtiefe dispersed (air raid) formation ██alle Seiten prüfen██
Führerreserve Leader reserve a unit (e.g., within the field reserve batallion of a division) consisting of officers and NCOs for quick replacement of wounded or fallen leaders, in the meantime they were employed for special duties[5]; there have been Führerreserven on all command levels[6]


Garbe burst (of fire), sheaf/sheaves (!) +
Gefechtsschreiber combat clerk clerk at a command post


Heimkehrer repatriate, returnee +
hungern (Hungerstreik) to starve oneself + (definitely not "to hunger" acc. to Phil)


IG infantry gun + (cf. Abbr.) [4]
Impressum Imprint +
in den nächsten Tagen any day now +


kann nur ... sein cannot but be ... +
Karzer karzer +
Kochgeschirr Mess kit
Kolonne Column (as transport unit)
Kommandant Commandant (!) ██bis Jan 43 prüfen██
Kommandeur General Officer Commanding (GOC) Is that perhaps the correct designation for an Oberbefehlshaber of an Armee or Heeresgruppe?
Kommandeur Commanding General Gereral who commands a unit
Kommandeur Commander (Cdr), Commandig Officer (CO) Officer who commands a unit
Kommando detachment +
Kompaniechef company chief closer to the German term than company commander ██alle Seiten prüfen██
Kriegslazarett war hospital +


Lage salvo +
Lazarett military hospital +
LFH light field howitzer + (cf. Abbr.) [4]
Lkw lorry + preferred over truck which is more of an AE term ██alle Seiten prüfen██


m.d.F.b. acting commander + (cf. Abbr.)
Marketender sutler +
MG machine gun + MG will be replaced (cf. Abbr.)[4]
Mücke + gnat (gem., nicht moskito ██alle Seiten ändenn██


Natschalnik nachalnik +
nicht mehr und nicht weniger no more nor less +
Niederwald coppice +
NN N.N. (nomen nescio), N.U. (name unknown) + cf. Abbr.
Norm (Arbeitsnorm) work norm, average work rate, quota, job norm


OA officer candidate, officer aspirant, aspirant officer + cf. Abbr.
Oberfeldwebel (Technical, First) Sergeant + rarely assigned third NCO grade, suitable, e. g., for Sergeant Major duties[5] cf. Ranks ██alle ändern██
Oberbefehlshaber (see also Kommandeur) commander better, in general, than C-in-C which rather means Oberster Befehlshaber or Oberbefehlshaber of a whole component (cf. Ranks)
Ordonnanzoffizier[2] (O.O.) special-missions staff officer, orderly officer, aide-de-camp (ADC) see Adjutant


Panzerabwehr-..., Panzerjäger-... antitank ... + "tank hunter" korrigieren!
Pak anti-tank gun/cannon + (cf. Abbr.) [4]
Panjepferd Panje horse, Konik the typical horse used by the local farmers
Panjewagen farmer's cart the typical cart used by the local farmers
Pionier... combat engineer(ing) ...
Pritsche cot + ██alle Seiten prüfen: bunk ist nicht treffend ██


Reservelazarett military reserve hospital +


Sani, Sanitäter Medic wrong: Paramedic ██alle Seiten ändern██
Spieß Sergeant Major, First Sergeant cf. Ranks
Sprung! Auf, marsch-marsch! (a. „Sprung auf, marsch, marsch!“ etc.) jump to it!, at the double! +
Staffel (as a company sub-unit) echelon air force „Staffel“ remains squadron
Stomarsch (Stabsoffizier für Marschüberwachung) Field officer for traffic control a unit for traffic control (not a military police unit) reinforced by Führerreserve personnel
Störungsfeuer harassing fire +


Teileinheitsführer platoon ... leader +
Tross train +


Urräää Oorraaa(y)


verschieben to traffick + to steal and sell illegally
vor nichts zurückschrecken shrink at nothing +


Wattejacke telogreika[7] +
Weißt Du was, ... You know something, ... +
Widerworte geben talk back to sb. + there are variants to this


z.b.V. special purpose + cf. Abbr.
Zeltbahn shelter half
Zwölfender ? cf. diary texts

Lautmalerei — Onomatopoeia

The author often tried to convey an impression of battle sounds by using certain expressions based on their German pronounciation. The editor as a translator tried to paint the sound the German expressions convey, based on his understanding of English pronounciation, not translate them as terms even if standard translations are proposed.

The days featuring onomatopoeia include: 17.12.43, 19.2.44

Blupp Bloupp mortar firing sound
Brruch Brroukh or Smmash Jason's proposal: Crrack. Sometimes "crash" is too high a pitch. Over and above this, the German "ach" sound[8] (shown as "kh") paints the ensuing spray of splinters, debris etc. after an explosion.
Brum-zäng-zinnng Broum-tsang-tsinnng
Rum-bruch-zäng Roum-broukh-tsang
Rums Boom, boum In one place "Rums" is translated to "Boom", which is not too bad; in German, "bums" is more of a harmless sounding children's expression.
Sssiiu-Bruch Ssseeou-brookh
Urräää Oorraaa(y)
Ziu Tseeou
more to be added
Pronunciation respelling key

Glossary Of Abbreviations And Foreign Terms

Appendix to Guide to Foreign Military Studies 1945-54, Catalog & Index[9]

a. D. (außer Dienst) Retired (from service)
Armeeabteilung A reinforced corps, under a corps commander with a corps staff
Armeegruppe A weak improvised army under an army commander with an improvised army staff
Caserne Barracks
Diplomingenieur Graduate engineer
Divisionsgruppe A weak improvised division with an improvised division staff
Feldkommandantur Administrative Area Hq (Regt level) in occupied territory
FFI French Forces af the Interior
Freiherr (Frhr.) Baron (title of nobility)
Fregattenkapitän Commander (Navy)
Gauleiter Official in charge of a Nazi party administrative area (Gau)
Generaladmiral Fleet Admiral
Generalarbeitsführer Senior official of the Reich Labor Service (RAD)
Generalarzt Brigadier General (Medical)
General der Artillerie Lieutenant General (Artillery)
General der Fallschirmtruppen Lieutenant General (Paratroops)
General der Flakartillerie Lieutenant General (Antiaircraft Artillery)
General der Flieger Lieutenant General (Air Force)
General der Gebirgstruppen Lieutenant General (Mountain Troops)
General der Infanterie Lieutenant General (Infantry)
General der Kavallerie Lieutenant Generel (Cavalry)
General der Nachrichtentruppen Lieutenant General (Signal)
General der Panzertruppen Lieutenant General (Armor)
General der Pioniere Lieutenant General (Engineers)
General der Waffen-SS Lieutenant General (Schutz-Staffel)
Generalfeldmarschall Field Marshal
Generalintendant Civilian official (QMC) with equivalent rank of a Brigadier General
Generalleutnant Major General
Generalmajor Brigadier General
Generaloberst Four star General
Generalstabsrichter Major General (JAG)
Graf Count (title of nobility)
Grenadier (Gren.) Honorary designation of all infantry regiments after 1942
Großadmiral Fleet Admiral
Hauptmann Captain (Army)
i. G. (im Generalstab) GSC
Jäger Light infantry
Kampfgruppe Battle Group; a term loosely assigned to improvised combat units of various sizes, named usually after their commanders
Konteradmiral Rear Admiral
Korpsgruppe A weak improvised corps with an improvised corps staff
Korvettenkapitaen Lieutenant Commander (Navy)
KTB (Kriegstagebuch) Unit war diary
Lehr prefix indicating a demonstration unit
Luftgau Air Force administrative command; a territorial subdivision of the administrative and supply organization of the Luftwaffe
Lw Luftwaffe
Luftwaffenfeld (LwFd) (prefix) Field (infantry combat) units of tho Luftwaffe
Marine (prefix) Naval
Ministerialrat Ministerial Counselor (senior civil servant)
OB (Oberbefehlshaber) Normally a Theater Headquarters; sometimes the Theater Commander
Oberleutnant 1st Lieutenant
Oberst Colonel
Oberstleutnant Lieutenant Colonel
OKH (Oberkommando des Heeres) Army High Command
OKL (Oberkommando der Luftwaffe Luftwaffe High Command
OKM (Oberkommando der Marine) Navy High Command
OKW (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht) Armed Forces (Joint) High Command
Panzer (Pz) (prefix) Armored
Panzergrenadier (Pz Gren) usuaily motorized, occasionally mechanized, infantry
Panzergruppe armored fdrce, the size of an army but operating in conjunction with an army
RAD (Reichsarbeitsdienst) Reich Labor Service; roughly equivalent to the CCC, but Nazi-dominated and continued active in wartime
Regierungsbaumeister Civilian construction official with equivalent rank of u colonel
Ritter Knight (title of nobility)
Rittmeister Captain (Cavalry)
SS (Schutz-Staffei) The Nazi Party Elite Corps; however, in military titles SS usually implies Waffen-SS (see explanation below)
SS-Gruppenführer Major General (SS)
SS-Obergruppenführer Lieutenant General (SS)
SS-Oberstgruppenführer Full General (SS)
Vizeadmiral Vice Admiral
Volks (prefix) Unit organized or reorganized after the total mobilization late in 1944
Volksgrenadier (VG) A term first applied in autumn 1944 to reorganized infantry divisions with reduced T/O and increased ratio of automatic weapons
Volkssturm People’s militia - somewhat resembles wartime State Guard in the US
Waffen-SS Combat arm of the SS - in effect a partial duplication of the German Army
Wehrkreis Military district; the basic military area of Germany, resembling somewhat the prewar U.S. Corps Area; had the additional functions of administering conscription and furnishing replacements to specific units (divisions and corps) whose home station is in the Wehrkreis
Wehrmacht The Armed Forces
WFSt (Wehrmachtführungsstab) Armed Forces Operations Staff (Operations Division of the Armed Forces High Command)
z. b. V. (zur besonderen Verwendung) for special employment

Further Information

Further help with terms and translation is available here:

  1. Frederick Clemens
  2. 2,0 2,1 In modern Bundeswehr the term Adjutant denotes a function similar to the former Ordonnanzoffizier.
  3. Jack Gibbons
  4. 4,0 4,1 4,2 4,3 4,4 still unsure wether to always use the abbreviation and put the long form into the list of abbreviations only, or always right away use the long form
  5. 5,0 5,1 Facebook group prefers to leave this term untranslated
  6. A common but incomplete interpretation is that the term only refers to the Wehrmacht top brass reserve in the sense of “the Führer's reserve”; however, the diary itself mentions the Führerreserve of 257.Inf.Div. and that of Heeresgruppe Süd.
  7. a jacket padded with cotton wool
  8. pronounced like Scottish "loch", see Voiceless velar fricative, Voiceless uvular fricative and ach-Laut
  9. Historical Division, Headquarters, United States Army, Europe, 1954, p. 252 f. (Source: WW2 Digital Archives - download link)
    Excerpt from the preface: Certain translation difficulties are reflected in this guide. German military terms do not always have exact American equivalents and cannot be expressed briefly in precise military language. Untranslated terms appearing in this guide are explained in the Glossary, page 252. This difficulty in arriving at standardized and generally accepted translation’s of German military terms has been a persistent problem in preparing the manuscripts; the researcher may even feel the need for an expansion and revision of U. S. military terminology. (p. iv)